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Kalabari Bibi

Diacritical Marks

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DIACRITIC
A diacritic is a mark placed under or over a letter to indicate that it should have a different sound from the same letter of its kind that does not have the mark.
 
DIACRITICAL AND TONAL MARKS
The Kalabari language has both Diacritical and Tonal Marks. The Tonal Marks which show the rise and fall of the tones of the vowels, are no longer used in written Kalabari.
The Diacritical Marks are, however, still in use.
 
Two types are common in the kalabari language:   
         (1) __   
         (2)  .   
We can have them under the vowels:    e   i    o   u
                                                               ẹ   ị    ọ   ụ
and under the consonanats:   b   d 
                                               b   d  
NB: In printed form, the dot [ . ] comes under the vowels while the dash [ __ ] comes under the consonanats. However, in handwritten (cursive) form, the dash should be used for both vowels and consonants.
                                                b   d     e   i    o   u
 

Please refer to the study on Consonants & Vowels for a guide on how letters with these diacritical marks are pronounced. 
 
NB: Parents need to guide their children on the sound of the semi-plosive forms of  b  and d
 
 

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