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kalabarinabibi
Verb

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Verb

Here Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs are treated.

VERB
Vabu anee tombo, aniania ye oju kiri ke mieari ye ( mieye)
 
In the Kalabari language, verbs are conjugated differently. In most cases, the root word never changes in all the six(6) levels of conjugation. Using the verb "to run" =  mangi , let us illustrate this:
       I run = A mangiari
       She runs  =  A mangiari
       He runs  =  O mangiari
       We run  =  Wa mangiari
       You run  =  I mangiari
       They run  =  In mangiari
Special forms of Tenses (conjugation)
Still using the verb "to run" let us see the various ways the Kalabaris express the various tenses of verbs:
 
English                                           Kal. root word +suffix (in red)
 
Infinitive form  (kunoma yanaa b'ra ): to run------ mangi
 
Imperative form  (bereton b'ra )
      affirmative  (miee ) : run! ----- mangi 
      negativeve  (miema) : don't run! ----- mangima
 
Present simple forms
      affirmative ( ani mie mie b'ra) : run / runs ----- mangi mangim
      negativeve ( ani mie miea b'ra) : does not run----mangi mangia
 
Present continuous forms
      affirmative (ani mieari b'ra) : running ----- mangiari
      negative  (ani mieaa b'ra) : not running ----- mangia
 
Present perfect forms
      affirmative (moku ani miete b'ra): has /have run --- mangitee
      negative (moku ani mieaa b'ra): has not /have not run --- mu ...mangia.
 
Past simple forms
      affirmative ( b'rote saki ani miete b'ra): ran-----  mangim
      negative (b'rote saki ani mieaa b'ra): did not run---- mangia
 
Past continuous forms
      affirmative (b'rote saki ani mie b'ra): was / were running-----      mangiari ogbo
      negative (b'rote saki ani mieaa b'ra): was / were running-----     mangia
     
Past perfect forms
      affirmative ( b'rote sote  b'ra):  had run -----  mangite so
      negative ( mu b'rote soa  b'ra): had not run -----  mangia
 
Futuristic forms
      affirmative (turoko ani miebari  b'ra):  shall, will run -----  mangiba
      negative (turoko ani mie n'ibia b'ra):  shall not, will not run -----  mangibiya
 
NB:
The negative tenses of -
present continuous,   past simple,
past continuous,   past perfect
in the Kalabari are the same
 
Homework: Now try to conjugate the followings using the example above.
      to give =  piri
      to go (from a place) = so
      to go (to a plce)  = mu
      to dance = seki
      to shout = oloku
      to laugh = deri
      to jump = dosi
more verbs will be encountered in the other site
 
 

Auxiliary Verbs
 
(to be)  present tense
I am;   You are;   He / She is;
We are ; You are; They are
 
In the Kalabari language, there are 2 ways to express these:
1. when  "to be" is followed by an article + noun+ pronoun, etc
2. when  "to be" is followed by a gerund ( -ing verb) + adverb + adj.
 
1st type:
I am  =  Yeri                 e.g  I am a boy = Yeri (gboru) owibo tubo.
You are = Iyeri            e.g  You are a good child = Iyeri ibi tubo
He is = Ori                   e.g He is a Nigerian = Ori Naijirabe bo
She is = Ari                 e.g She is Boma = Ari Boma
We are = Wamini
You are = Omini
They are = Ini
 
2nd type:
I am =  A                      e.g  I am eating = A ye fiari
You are = I
He is = O                     e.g  He is very careful  = O ye bala dim.
She is = A                   e.g  She is asleep = A monote
We are = Wa
You are = O
They are = In               e.g They are here.= In bote
 
 
 
 
(to be)  past tense
I was;   You were;   He / She was;
We were ; You were; They were
In the Kalabari language, there are 2 ways to express these:
1. when  "to be" is followed by an article + noun+ pronoun, etc
2. when  "to be" is followed by and/ or ends with a  gerund
3. when  "to be" is followed by a gerund ( -ing verb) + adverb + adj.
 
1st type:
I was = Tari tari Yeri
You were = Tari tari Iyeri
He was = Tari tari Ori
She was = Tari tari ari
We were = Tari tari Wamini
You were = Tari tari Omini
They were = Tari tari Ini
NB: In the place of tari tari (which stand for was, were) you can put :
       a. burote saki bu         b. bieinbe enebaka
 
2nd type (when used as an answer or a question):
For all the levels, was and were become "simem"
e.g  I was sleeping = A mono simem
       Were you sleeping? = I mono sime  ( the last m in simem dropped)
       She was washing the plate = A pani me sikiri simem.
 
 
(to have)  present tense
I have;   You have;   He / She has;
We have ; You have; They have
 
I have = A
You have = I
He has = O
She has = A
We have = Wa
You have = O
They have = In
NB: In the kalabari language, has and have are assimilated into the main verb.
e.g I have eaten the food = fiye me A fite (i.e the food I eaten)
     He has run away = O mangiso te
more...
 
 

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