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Abridged Kalabari
Advanced Study 1
Diacritical Marks
Direct - Indirect Speech
Disapproving Remarks
Kalabari Anthology
Kalabari Beliefs
Kalabari Culture
Kalabari Costumes
Kalabari Folk Songs
Kalabari History Highlights
Kalabari Idioms
Kalabari Kings 1669-2003
Kalabari Towns
Language Gems 1
Language Gems 2
Nasalized Words
New Entries
Pathetic Fallacy
Peculiar Kalabari Expressions
Phrasal Verbs
Talking Time
Transitional Statements

Here Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs are treated.

Vabu anee tombo, aniania ye oju kiri ke mieari ye ( mieye)
In the Kalabari language, verbs are conjugated differently. In most cases, the root word never changes in all the six(6) levels of conjugation. Using the verb "to run" =  mangi , let us illustrate this:
       I run = A mangiari
       She runs  =  A mangiari
       He runs  =  O mangiari
       We run  =  Wa mangiari
       You run  =  I mangiari
       They run  =  In mangiari
Special forms of Tenses (conjugation)
Still using the verb "to run" let us see the various ways the Kalabaris express the various tenses of verbs:
English                                           Kal. root word +suffix (in red)
Infinitive form  (kunoma yanaa b'ra ): to run------ mangi
Imperative form  (bereton b'ra )
      affirmative  (miee ) : run! ----- mangi 
      negativeve  (miema) : don't run! ----- mangima
Present simple forms
      affirmative ( ani mie mie b'ra) : run / runs ----- mangi mangim
      negativeve ( ani mie miea b'ra) : does not run----mangi mangia
Present continuous forms
      affirmative (ani mieari b'ra) : running ----- mangiari
      negative  (ani mieaa b'ra) : not running ----- mangia
Present perfect forms
      affirmative (moku ani miete b'ra): has /have run --- mangitee
      negative (moku ani mieaa b'ra): has not /have not run --- mu ...mangia.
Past simple forms
      affirmative ( b'rote saki ani miete b'ra): ran-----  mangim
      negative (b'rote saki ani mieaa b'ra): did not run---- mangia
Past continuous forms
      affirmative (b'rote saki ani mie b'ra): was / were running-----      mangiari ogbo
      negative (b'rote saki ani mieaa b'ra): was / were running-----     mangia
Past perfect forms
      affirmative ( b'rote sote  b'ra):  had run -----  mangite so
      negative ( mu b'rote soa  b'ra): had not run -----  mangia
Futuristic forms
      affirmative (turoko ani miebari  b'ra):  shall, will run -----  mangiba
      negative (turoko ani mie n'ibia b'ra):  shall not, will not run -----  mangibiya
The negative tenses of -
present continuous,   past simple,
past continuous,   past perfect
in the Kalabari are the same
Homework: Now try to conjugate the followings using the example above.
      to give =  piri
      to go (from a place) = so
      to go (to a plce)  = mu
      to dance = seki
      to shout = oloku
      to laugh = deri
      to jump = dosi
more verbs will be encountered in the other site

Auxiliary Verbs
(to be)  present tense
I am;   You are;   He / She is;
We are ; You are; They are
In the Kalabari language, there are 2 ways to express these:
1. when  "to be" is followed by an article + noun+ pronoun, etc
2. when  "to be" is followed by a gerund ( -ing verb) + adverb + adj.
1st type:
I am  =  Yeri                 e.g  I am a boy = Yeri (gboru) owibo tubo.
You are = Iyeri            e.g  You are a good child = Iyeri ibi tubo
He is = Ori                   e.g He is a Nigerian = Ori Naijirabe bo
She is = Ari                 e.g She is Boma = Ari Boma
We are = Wamini
You are = Omini
They are = Ini
2nd type:
I am =  A                      e.g  I am eating = A ye fiari
You are = I
He is = O                     e.g  He is very careful  = O ye bala dim.
She is = A                   e.g  She is asleep = A monote
We are = Wa
You are = O
They are = In               e.g They are here.= In bote
(to be)  past tense
I was;   You were;   He / She was;
We were ; You were; They were
In the Kalabari language, there are 2 ways to express these:
1. when  "to be" is followed by an article + noun+ pronoun, etc
2. when  "to be" is followed by and/ or ends with a  gerund
3. when  "to be" is followed by a gerund ( -ing verb) + adverb + adj.
1st type:
I was = Tari tari Yeri
You were = Tari tari Iyeri
He was = Tari tari Ori
She was = Tari tari ari
We were = Tari tari Wamini
You were = Tari tari Omini
They were = Tari tari Ini
NB: In the place of tari tari (which stand for was, were) you can put :
       a. burote saki bu         b. bieinbe enebaka
2nd type (when used as an answer or a question):
For all the levels, was and were become "simem"
e.g  I was sleeping = A mono simem
       Were you sleeping? = I mono sime  ( the last m in simem dropped)
       She was washing the plate = A pani me sikiri simem.
(to have)  present tense
I have;   You have;   He / She has;
We have ; You have; They have
I have = A
You have = I
He has = O
She has = A
We have = Wa
You have = O
They have = In
NB: In the kalabari language, has and have are assimilated into the main verb.
e.g I have eaten the food = fiye me A fite (i.e the food I eaten)
     He has run away = O mangiso te

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